The novelist observes captures, collects and writes…. Take care dear readers! The novel today is such a compass and a barometer. Perhaps would not you like to bet there? However, a bad compass reading or negligence of the barometer will be expensive.
A. R. Munif, The Writer and exile, 398-99
After the war of 1967, the modern Arabic novel takes a new direction that in this article I will try to identify and define. I will also seek to know why the novel, in the current Arab world, is considered the literary genre of the time. Finally, above all I will try to understand the new experience offered by this modern novel to readers.
From the outset, we note that this literary form that accompanied the movement of the Nahda (awakening) since the second half of the nineteenth century continues to fuel the debate about the origins of the novel. A question arises: this form would it be proper to Arab culture or has it been imported from the West? We cannot ignore the fact that the history of the Arab novel begins with the entry of the world into modernity. Moreover, the Arab awakening did not based on the Enlightenment? At this time we are witnessing the emergence of the novel as a cultural practice, which is nice and many appeared with the movement of translation in the presence of a West that landed in this region. Thus, this article aims to show, through a text Munif how this imported technique of writing what the novel is rooted in Arab culture. We will highlight how this contemporary genre reach maturity through the complexity and ambiguity in which plunges the Arab society to Western modernity. Indeed, the modern Arabic novel is a novel actuellemt that thinks itself, both in relation to its past than its present and its future. It becomes at the same time, the unveiling or the opening of the Arab world to the world; it is the point of encounter with the other.
In this article, we try to highlight these aspects and show how the novel with Munif becomes the place where the process takes place in the Arab subjectivity. We will also see the difficulties that prevent the formation of a collective subject. Our hypothesis will be illustrated by a specific example from the novel. This study proves, then, a reflection on the transfer of aesthetic to echo technology transfer.
The novel face the modernization and development
The modernization of Arab society has not done everywhere and neither at the same time nor in the same conditions. Following the First World War, the world will witness the hegemonic rise of the United States are beginning to compete Britain in the exploitation of oil. On the other hand, the presence of the West in the region favored the outbreak of the modernization process as the capitalist development of theories that brings together government sectors and institutions. We specify that it is to become peripheral states, compared with the West, which has managed to impose its social, economic, cultural and ideological. Transforming them into peripheral capitalist societies these companies to pre-capitalist character had their local self-sufficiency system broken and ended up in the circuit of colonial trade, reduced to markets for metropolitan production. Thus the city will grow at the expense of the periphery.
The independence movement that followed the Second World War, in peripheral societies will generate a modernization that will be reflected in the implementation of some state structure. Today the State participates actively social transformations and the exploitation of natural resources. It is developing promoter all economic sectors, social, political and cultural. It is he who provides the freedoms of the individual or hindrance. Indeed, Arab society attends this time a real change with the emergence of the nation state and the modernization that followed independence.
In the Arab Middle East, modernization took place under the influence of two ideologies: nationalism and Islam. The presence of the West in the region has hindered the unification efforts. However, a sense of Arabism will continue to grow in urban populations through the media, the development of transport and intra-Arab institutions. The Palestinian problem was the catalyst of this solidarity. A major transformation that has occurred in Syria and Lebanon. Following independence and the creation of the State of Israel, the most rational forms of nationalism appear with Michel ’Aflaq and Nasser. Arabic literature then passes from the Nahda (awakening) in the Thawra (revolution).
After 1952 Arab solidarity will be broken by the desire of the various Arab regimes to protect local interests. The economic impact in the Arab countries of oil, particularly in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, will promote increased economic integration based on the exchange of labor between poor and overpopulated countries and the oil-rich country and under populated.
We cannot deny the existence of a relationship between the development of novel and social evolution. The novel has gradually emerged in the various Arab societies and following stages. It originated and evolved under the influence of internal social factors: the stammering of the industry, the development and evolution of new trade, the emergence of social classes. The effect of all these factors will be reflected then on the aesthetic sphere. The novel will be no exception.
The generation to which the novel is much still writing today. This is after the Second World War that the Arab novel writing is very elaborate. Most novelists of this period are intellectual elite from the middle class. We find a high concentration of these writers in Egypt. But a whole new generation of writers arose at that time, almost everywhere in the Arab world. Realism will feature the works of the majority of these writers.
These authors began to write in a sociopolitical context new Arab-dominated pan-Arab nationalist ideologies. These ideologies, affirming the unity of the Arab nation, are realizing they accuse Western domination of imperialism. These ideologies say revolution-ners, in that they want to free the Arab nation from Western domination, do not reject Western modernity; rather, they seek to integrate the Arab social structures.
The writers then take to approximate Western modernity of the Arab cultural heritage. Under the influence of French existentialist current with Sartre and Camus, authors are concerned with metaphysical problems. From the perspective of the novel form their works retain a traditional invoice. Many novels of this period the apologists of the “revolution” regardless of the mistakes.
After the War of 1967 began a period that could be called post-nationalist. The ideal of the Arab nation begins to crack, efforts to unify different countries fail. The result is a general disillusionment: the failure of the revolutions and nationalist ideologies flaws start to appear. The Arab novel enters a new phase. Arab novelists are looking for a new form of the novel that is tailored to Arab culture. By deploying Arab efforts to find a way to tell, novelists back to ancient sources to operate the junction of the two veins of the Arab culture, namely the popular vein and the literary vein.
It is in this new phase appears A.R. Munif. We commenserons with a summary of five volumes so that the reader is better informed.
1. salt Cities: misguidance
This novel, first volume of the salt pentalogy City Munif, depicts the human and social history of an Arab country. The arrival of the oil shock device causes in a society which then undergoes an abrupt change that painful. The novel is set in Wadi al-’Uyūn, an oasis known for the freshness of its sources and goodness of its people. But then the Americans arrived at the Petroleum Research forcing residents to leave the oasis for Harran, a town by the sea and where the Americans have installed their company. This is where al-Met’eb Hadhal, which marks the first hero of the novel, embodies the resistance to the new order established by local authorities and by the Americans. It is the same for the traditional doctor al-Géd’an Mufdi that will eventually give way to the new doctor Subhi al-Ma~hmaldji formed in the West.
So we see that the problem raised is that of the desert and technology. Large or small, officer or people of people, all have become hostages of a new life that escapes them.
2. salt Cities: the Ditch
The events of the novel take place in the city of Mouran, main city of the desert. As for ~Harran, it becomes a ghost town due to the transfer of mégasphères to Mouran. The only character who just Harr_n, is the doctor Subhi al-Ma~hmaldji. This opportunist reaches Mouran surrounds the Sultan and feels able to explain the principles of a modern state. He thinks he’s a philosopher and collaborates with the Americans to base the secret service agency. This novel also marks the birth of the various state institutions, as well as founding the first by an Egyptian newspaper. The author also discusses the creation of strategies and market dominance, describing the dizzying ascent to “progress” symbolized by the economy and architecture. It is mainly a question of mismanagement of oil fallout that could result in society adrift. For these reasons, Fanar, a brother of the Sultan Khuz’ul, enjoying the marriage of the latter with the daughter of al-Mahmaldji doctor to organize a coup and exiled to do a Western Sultan country with his young wife, as the doctor and his family. Thus Mouran sees a page in its history tour and began to wait.
This second volume especially addresses the problem of modernization with all that it entails as upheaval in lifestyles (government, trade, emergence of a wealthy class etc.), the emergence of new lifestyle and persistence the former, contamination and contradiction. This cross comes a new temporality which requires rethinking concepts such as linearity of history, subjectivity, by including the issue of female subject in modernization, action etc. In particular, the novel is polarized on the emergence of writing and the changes that the phenomenon brings knowledge and knowledge about.
3. salt Cities: Variations of the night and the day
This third volume is central in the novel, its main topic Sultan Khraybit, who managed to get the puvoir tribal “al mezhir bin sou~heim” and to found the State ~Hudaybite (name on the great ancestor ~ Houdayb) thanks to his innate sense of building relationships within and outside the country (the author means by this the British Empire). By his subtlety that the Sultan dominates the political scene and, if declaring a war is not foreign to him, he especially knows how to win. Furthermore, although the Englishman Hamilton, a character converted to Islam under the name of ’Abdel Samad, plays an important role in the orientation of the Sultan, however this remains secondary. By cons, this presence allows us to have two points of view: that of the eastern (Sultan) vis-à-vis the Angais and vice versa. On the other hand, even the choice of the commonplace cannot reconcile these two images and offers no room for otherness. In addition, this volume contains explicit discourse on this part of the East: “The Orient memory of mankind; its point of departure and arrival, “according to which the author reflects on the” become “Thanks to a target, such as a camera, capturing every detail, the novel describes the different characters.: women, eunuchs, children, servants, servants and even the whole entourage of the Sultan, both the latter’s relations with his subjects than the Palace with the outside world.
The fundamental question that arises from this part is a notion of history under modernization. Already the novel opens with a historic speech, although explicit, is an invitation to study the discursive historicity. Thus, the concept of the state, in the words of Deleuze and Guattari, will result in the settlement of Bedouins whose training is done from the outside, that is to say the war; an outer considered not only in relation to the executive, but also on external powers that guide. In conclusion, it is on two sides of the war.
4. salt Cities: the Separated
It is interesting to note the epigraph quoted by the author in this volume “proverb that separates countries crossed or not mount guard” (to be too hasty one came to nothing). This phrase is significant: one who cuts with its foundations will not go far. Such is the case of the al-Ma~hmaldji doctor, the Arab intellectual acculturated to Western, and that of the Emir Khuz’ul modernized so grotesque and irrational.
This novel tells the life of the exiled sultan Khuz’ul in Switzerland after the coup of his brother, the EMIRE Fanar. As for the characters, they are described in their inability to adapt to their new environment: they continue to live and act as if they had never left their country. This is presented so that the grotesque behavior of the characters, in their exile, comes out. Moun_f focuses on the transformation of Dr. al-Ma~hmaldji, which gradually loses his mind. So the link is emerging from the thematic point of view, between this and the preceding volume whose discursive study will focus on the East and West.
5. salt Cities: Desert of darkness
This speaks volume of the governmental system which, through a war machine formed by the Americans was strengthened on strong foundations. Hamm_d is sent to the US for training to become chief of internal security. By this, the author brings evidence the implementation of a new economic system; is the emergence of a consumer society based on a “wild” capitalism in its purest form: the creation of financial intermediaries and official representations for marketing US products within Mour_n and introduction of lobbying. On the other hand, Mounf stresses the use of new media (press and radio), to better control the populations and facilitate the management of the country “in the West.” Thus, in this novel, role to the Emir Fanar by English Hamilton is highlighted; to govern the country well, it suggests that the Emir playing the Prince of Machiavelli.
Furthermore, the author describes the company in the Sultanate Hudaybite after the mutation, the emerging police state, secret services and security measures. The purchase of weapons is the main activity in which the state engages with the help of intermediaries. Because the work is channeled towards strengthening the war machine. The final note concerns the death of the Emir or Sultan. We can say that the theme of this volume come, too, that of the third volume; chaining on war, weapons, and violence.
A first approach to misguidance, up the front drive two worlds or two cultures, Arab and Western, which came into interaction since Americans, attracted by oil, arrive in a region whose population has never had contact with the West. The discovery of oil by the US leads in the region, social transitions, economic and technological are not without influence culture. This novel uses all previous Arab discourse and agency for purposes both aesthetic and ideological. The local population, while it modernizes, changes from traditional oral culture to a culture focused on writing.
In this novel, time is constantly intersecting space, which generates continuously, situations where the characters are faced with new foreign experiences to their world references. So there is a highlight of changes and transformations in places and in people’s lives. This explains the use of chronotopic reading the novel. The concept of the chronotope Bakhtin (ie time-space) which comes under the form and content, aims to understand the emergence of a literary genre and to seize the man’s relationship to the world.
How it makes the novel account of all these experiences? It is through the analysis of different chronotopes that mark the movement in the text that we can answer this question. In this article, we will limit ourselves to the new chronotope generated by data Moun_f text, namely: technological chronotope whose theoretical study is based on the aesthetics and theory of the novel Bakhtin (237-38). To better illustrate the thought of Bakhtin and highlight its originality, it should be noted first that the definition of Kant gives space and time in his Transcendental Aesthetic.
The space and time according to Kant
For Kant, space and time are “categories that exists a priori.” He defined a priori as being independent of experience, as necessary and universal. Thus these categories are pure forms. They are the basis for any representation of phenomena. Kant up first the “sensitivity” is the perception of representations, then, “intuition” that is the way in which the knowledge relates to objects. For him, only the sensitivity provides us with intuitions. Space and time can not exist in themselves but they exist in us. These are simple forms of our intuition. They have in common with the objects that exist in the way we collect, that is to say in a subjective perception. As a result, our knowledge proves that phenomena and not things themselves. We can not know that our intuition. As for the items, we will never know them. Previous experience, time and space do not drift but make it a priori possible.
The chronotope or “space-time” in Bakhtin
For Bakhtin, in his definition of chronotope which is nothing for him an essential correlation of spatial and temporal relations (Bakhtin 238), there is room for a merger of the indices of time and space; thus one is revealed in the other. Bakhtin as Kant recognizes the need of the categories of time and space for the whole experience. But cons, it refuses to consider them as final data. According to him, these categories remain subject to external determinations that make the chronotope is not always the same. In other words, the historicizes and thus give them a role in the process of knowledge not only of reality, but also of literary art (Bakhtin 238, note 1). This means that for Bakhtin, these forms are not transcendental and perceptions can change depending on the conditions of a new savoire creating a new reality. Being a “category of form and content,” the chronotope allows to develop “the image of man in literature, picture still essentially space-time,” said Bakhtin (238).
Compared to our novel, we see that the key role of the chronotope in defining genres allows us to considéder time the novel before the arrival of the Other (the American), as a time of absolute past. The arrival of the Other, in the oasis, creates a break and introduced the company in a historical time will be the time of the novel. Moun_f thereby seeks to establish an Arab literary genre on the basis of a time The sudden arrival of the Other, the West, in a society that tended toward a certain maturity, has hampered its development and has created doubt. The experience of Otherness missed seem to literary art, put face to face the Arabic novel and the Western novel, the first such kind in search of its own identity and the second can handle the heterogeneous.”epic” national and soak up all the features of its cultural past.
The analysis of the series of temporality allows us to meet the passage of an epic time, which is that of absolute past, a historical time said time of the novel. The idea of Bakhtin that time is not homogeneous clarifies. He added that either space is not homogeneous.
With modernization, Harran became a city like Deleuze describes: “A remarkable point on circuits that create it or it creates, it is defined by inputs and outputs, it is something between them and ensure (…) it operates a polarization of matter, inert, living or human “(Deleuze and Guattari 539). Thus Harran attracts traders and entrepreneurs. The first already arriving in Basra. One of them is the most famous; he has relations with India and Manchester. Another Hasan Ridal, arrives with great din although it is completely unknown to Harran. Come aboard a luxury yacht, Ridal place without delay a courtesy visit to the EMIRE and offers him a gift telescope. During his second visit, he offers her a radio.
These two objects represent the latest technological innovations of the time. They will be followed by many others: the phone, the car and
cameras. Thanks to the telephone and radio, Harran became aware of the phenomenon of instantaneous communication.
If modernization has produced the metamorphosis of space, the advent of modern technological innovations will affect the aboriginal report as well as the time space. The new conditions will in fact frame the experience of the characters and, thereby, affecting their subjectivity, as we shall see later.
Changing the representation of space and its effects on the Emir and the people
This part of the study focuses on a text that opens with a change already announced at the beginning: “It is not a thing that expects Harran, which remains stable and does not change. Humans and things, even nature, including water and wind, all change and alter “(CS 367).
The passages devoted to the introduction of modern technological inventions in the town of Harran are many. Among these new devices there are three that deserve very special attention: the telescope, radio, and telephone. The author portrays the characters reactions came from very different backgrounds. I am happy to present one: the Amir.
As civil authority, Amir receives modern technological objects prestigious gift. Overall, these objects such as “telescope” and “radio” frighten the Bedouin to the point that some see them as the devil’s work. While it adheres to the same culture and the same beliefs as his people, the Amir receives these objects as the result of the knowledge that God inspires man. It only repeats a Koranic verse: “Recite, for your most generous Master of All,” “He taught man what he does not know” (Qur’an 96 s, and v.3. v.5, translated by René Khawam). The Emir invokes this last verse to express his admiration for the new technological inventions (CS 405), admiration reached the point he’s trying to integrate them into his practical life:
He is eager to watch the wedding of the son of Dabbasi with the telescope … and especially at this distance (…) and it seems concerned about watching matches and some photos, that put to him one of his men, at different distances once after another. And the emir took different positions; sometimes he lay down, after fixing the telescope on a pillow, sometimes it as sayait on a knee by pressing the hand with which he held the telescope to another, until it reaches the ” launch position “as he called it (…) he continued to give orders for the placement matches (…) that he first observed with the naked eye, then with the telescope (.. .). (CS 378)
The Emir is completely enamored of the telescope, and became distracted. Attitude intrigue are his subjects; they no longer understand what is happening. Upon arrival of the American ship, the Emir is evading its duties and spends his time observing women, half naked, who were on the boat: “His astonishment sharpness of vision in this great distance reached the level of fear and a strong disturbance “(CS 391). Amir reacts to the images projected in the telescope as having a reality.
The Emir also surprised to see the Americans go close to women on the boat without reacting. From there, one notes the difference between the images exhibited the body of Western woman and the absence of women as bodies visible in the culture of the Amir. The scope of this image, which exceeds the excitement to reach the fear and disruption, emphasizes the idea of taboo. Therefore, the Emir plunged into a total distraction to the point that he falls ill; the disease reached a peak after the departure of the boat. The Amir becomes skeptical, he suspects his man to have told the Americans he watched, and that these furious last of this interference, lifted the veil. Furthermore, when Vice Emir speaks of the reciprocal experience, recalling that Americans have the same purpose as the Emir, he is cured. Is that the Emir is believed unique in its power to use the telescope. The privilege falls, the “will” disappear (CS 396-99).
Here we are before the “theme of the meeting” but in a new chronotope. The meeting takes place “simultaneously” in scattered locations. So there is a unit of time but no place. The presence of the Other in the meeting is the close aussurée image, that is to say that his presence is virtual.
We have already noted that the telescope has the function of closer distances. This is an extension of the eyes, that is the view. Through the instrument, it is allowed to propagate inaccessible spaces and sometimes prohibited. The perception of space in general and also the intimate space is disrupted. The reaction of the Emir face at the near image of women shows that this space is invested by desire; this is somehow a violation of personal space. The technology opens the forbidden area and, by extension, the values associated with it are no longer met.
The new chronotope, by the characteristic it closer distances, involves simultaneous spatial awareness that emerges as the effective reality. Hence the importance that the Emir in the long view, telling his assistant: “One day human intelligence manage to invent a device consisting of a series of telescopes to see people in faraway places , Egypt and Damascus even further “(CS 379). This geographical conscience allows the Emir to define its horizon: Cairo, Damascus. This horizon represents for him a repository location. In fact, the Emir does not realize that the repository location would henceforth associated with modern technology (the telescope in his hand, comes from the West, for example). In fact, the fate of the country is played in the United States and not in Damascus or Cairo. Indeed the change that affects people’s lives and their region occurred due to lack of modernization and introduction of modern technology at home. So in the case of the Emir, if we see further, it is not necessarily to see well.
With the passing of bodily limitations, the space is not only geographical but also social and intimate. Therefore, the Emir is fascinated by the “magical device.” He became completely absorbed by an otherness due to the discovery of the West. For this discovery, the Emir is somehow lost. His perception of the world is not the same. It passes from one state to another. It is the identification with the Other requires a loss of self, where the disease of the Emir. His world reference not allowing him more understanding of the new perception, it can no longer be achieved by experienced subject; it becomes an abstract topic and distracted, withdrawn from its function. The telescope affects not only the subjectivity of the Emir but it also alters the dimensions of time and space, and therefore the given consciousness. Suddenly the Emir becomes opaque to its citizens.
During his second visit, Bridal still brings a new object: a radio. When the offer to the Emir, he said:
This gift that I brought from afar to your Majesty, will carry the world in you and will transport you to the world to the farthest point (…) while remaining in your place. Amir opened his eyes wide, shook his head in sign of comprehension of words Rid_ï. He remained silent until the next step. (CS 402)
Who attended the demonstration of the operation of the radio and heard the music and songs followed the identification of radio: “Here’s Middle East station,” the Amir Hasan approaches Rid_ï ask insistently teach him how to power the device. The reaction of the Amir is that of astonishment mingled joy and fear; visibly impressed, he says these incomprehensible words: “The world around us is a strange world full of mysteries. God taught man what it did not know. The key is to be in good faith, to open his heart (…) And God will inspire and instruct “(CS 405).
He addresses his assistant to say that the telescope “allowed to see a hair from a distance” and radio “sometimes she speaks, she sometimes cries and sometimes asks the Prophet.” Then he said with an air of bemused “God taught man that it did not know” (CS 405). His amazement increases when Ridal informs that other states place great importance on the radio and devote significant funds and ample resources; the radio is for the state as a mirror for the face, it shows its strength and importance; such a device is in the homes of the rich and enables them to understand what is happening in the world (…). (CS 408)
Rideau has a conception of the modern state, the hierarchy of modern society and the function of the media. As for Amir, who knows nothing of the modern state, these notions escape it completely. Ridal refers to a worldview that is foreign to the Amir.
The Emir puts the radio on before her guests. He comes out of the vote: we speak of Caliph Omar Ibn al-Khattab, then 2 tells the story of two ducks and tortue.3 Those who were there could not believe what they saw and heard. Intrigued, they wondered how music and words could come from such a small box. Was there in the world who was playing in and how was life inside this crate? The Emir proud of his new learning feels superior to others. He addresses his guests by saying: “The world is not like before, it changed, changed a lot, it became small and it comes to you in your hands instead you are going” (CS 413).
Amir does not feel only admiration for the radio. It seems to feel fear. Those who were close to him saw that night he did not sleep in the same place as the radio and he loaded his rifle before going to bed for fear that something happens to this “calamity” (CS 422).
Radio marks a new stage in the life of the Emir. Having learned of the voice of London, he informs with Ridal. This offers him listen to “London” every night, adding that thanks to the London radio that he learned of the city of Harran, its oil port and refineries. Astonished, the Emir exclaims “All this in our Harran” (CS 428).
There is something ironic in the fact that, in London, the West is better informed about the news of Harran that local civil authority representative. This report reveals the nature of center / periphery. Those decisions are made at the center, not the periphery. There is an asymmetry of information.
With the telescope could see the Amir, but he could neither hear nor speak. With radio, he hears but cannot see or speak. Radio is a condensation of the word of the Other. The Emir heard the speech of the West on Harran. The telescope and radio create a need which, when expressed by speech, becomes desire. This desire has not yet expressed, the Emir can not become subject of speech. It then undergoes subjectivity conveyed by Western culture. The Emir, as we reported earlier, belongs to a culture that has not had contact with the new technology and that involves new relationship with the world. He leaves a “haptic space, which can be visual, auditory as well as tactile, where again the vision space close-haptic” (Deleuze and Guattari 615).
This new world, urbanized grid related, according to Deleuze, to distant vision and a more optical space. If he manages to operate the radio, the Emir does not understand the concept of broadcasting. Is that all knowledge presupposes a subject of knowledge and object of knowledge. But according Godzich, the ratio of knowledge to its object is not the same whether it is in the order of intelligible or sensible agenda:
If the ratio of [the human being in the world] is that of a subject to an object, in this case there is a report in two worlds: the world of intelligible objects and the world of sensible objects seized by two faculties: intellect for what is intelligible and common sense with regard to sensitive objects. From this conception the human being would be composed of two topics: knowledge of subject in terms of intellect and experience Subject to what common sense. (Godzich, N.P.)
The Emir joins a world where all knowledge is known by and in the event, a world deeply marked by the authority of the experience: “Do not engage yourself in something you do not have perfect knowledge. The hearing, sight, the heart of all this, we ask you accountable “(Qur’an s. 17, v. 36). This idea of sensible experience will be repeated in the traditional Arab culture in the form of proverbs and maxims. Then the positions of the Emir vis-à-vis the instruments of technology (approach and radio bezel) is not that of knowledge of the subject but a subject of experience. He has no cognitive power over them.
Also, if subjectivity is self referential, Amir, struggling with new inventions, cannot refer to itself. The senses are fragmented; they no longer work together but separately. Consequently his concept of space is boulversée. For Amir it is he who moves stable remaining space. With the telescope and radio, it is the world that comes to him, while he stands still to watch or listen. Thus the new chronotope in which is the Emir represents a new perception of space and time from the point of view of speed and immediacy of voice and image.
In a world that knows nothing of the mechanisms of the art production, while modern instrument achieves a finished product. Aboriginal people are not provided with any knowledge that allows them to grasp the material. Technology remains inexplicable to them. Being inexplicable, this technology falls into the evil or the wonderful. That’s why the Amir called the phone “wonderful instrument” (CS 555).
The Amir receives phone the head of the American camp for the contact is permanent them. Showing this unit Hasan Ridal, he asked all sorts of information about the device. One of his first concerns was whether the phone allowed to talk to the same people missing are dead. The idea of conversing with someone out of the reach of his senses he seems so magical that it plans to communicate by telephone with spirits, with the invisible. the experience that is the subject distance is measured by that which separates the subject of knowledge that can not be. The gap is so great that the Emir enters a state of crisis.